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Hours were counted relative to sunset or sunrise In antiquity, rather than from an artificially determined 'midnight' as we do It today. In Greece. For that matter, it la not even dear In the earliest sources, such as Hesiod, whether the sun or the stars were thought to be moving.


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Lehoux, What is a Porapegmn? This first appearance is the next significant phase of the star, called its 'heliacal rising'morning rising', or just its 'rising'.

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After this phase, the star will rise earlier and earlier each day until its 'acronychal rising',5 or 'evening rising', when it rises in the east just as the sun sets on the western horizon. A little while later, the star will set on the western horizon just as the sun rises in the east, making its 'acronychal setting', or 'morning setting'.

Stars north or south of the ecliptic have some differences in the sequential order of these phases,6 but the terminology remains the same. All the phases I have discussed above, the heliacal and acronychal risings and settings, are apparent insofar as they are observable phenomena.

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Some parapegmata, however, distinguish the true rising and setting from the observed phase. Due to the brightness of the sun, the true phase is never 5 'Acronyclial' comes from the Greek dncpdvuxoj, "at nightTall". Lehoux, What Is a Parapegma? An example of the distinction between a true and apparent phase can be found in Geminus:8 On the 27th of Cancer : According to Euctemon, Sirius rises: the weather changes And four days later, we see: On the 1st day of Leo : According to Euctemon, Sirius is visible, it becomes very hot: the weather changes. Not all cases are so clear, however, and it is often difficult to tell from a given parapegmata whether the true or apparent phases are referred to.


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Lit The Nundinal Days The nundinal day is the market-day for a given Italian town, which occurred, from archaic times onward, every ninth day on the Roman reckoning every eighth day counted as we would do. The local market day was a holiday from agricultural work,9 and farmers could thus come to town to exchange wares and produce, as well as to keep up on local affairs, politics, laws, etc.

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Lehoux, What is aParapegma? Michels sees the nundlns as representing an archaic Roman week which was replaced by the seven-day week beginning in Augustan times, or possibly earlier. I therefore disagree with her, and think that these texts were meant to keep track of two or more distinct cycles—one nundinal, one hebdomadal, one lunar—such that with one glance at the parapegma, anyone could tell what day it was in the local nundinal cycle, what day of the moon it was, and what deity was presiding over the day.

Until the early twentieth century, the only known parapegmata were found in the astronomical or divinatory manuscripts of, for example, 13 See Michels, , p. Lehoux, Whnt is a Parapegma?

According to Eudoxus, rain, thunder, the Etesian winds stop. These holes corresponded to the number of days between, for example, two phases of a star. An excerpt from Miletus II should help to illustrate this.

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See Toomer, , p. What is a Parapegma? According to Cal[lane]us of the Indians, Scorpio sets, with thun[d]er and wind, o o The holes were used for inserting pegs. Greek civil calendars were lunar, which means that the month 'year' was days long. These differences in year length meant that the lunar calendar date on which a particular stellar phase occurred could vary by a half month or more from year to year. The stone parapegma could thus be used, as Rehm thought, to determine what date in a given lunar year would see what phases or what corresponding weather patterns.

But this would require that the pegs be labeled somehow to indicate calendrical dates. Compare Geminus, Libra 17 and Lehoux, What Cs a Parapegma? In the Thermae Ttaiani parapegma the remains of only a single peg were found, not a host of them, as Rehm's theory seems to require. But in the parapegma described by Petronius, a single peg seems to have been used to keep track of each cycle.

Moreover, on Rehm's theory, there would be no need for the peg holes marking eventless days, as in Miletus I. It seems therefore probable that there was only one peg which was moved each day from hole to hole, thus indicating only the current date, and the current astronomical or astrometeorological situation. The empty peg holes would allow one to count the number of days between now and the next significant event. In some parapegmata, stellar phases are linked with both day-to-day weather phenomena like rain, snow, and storms, and with annual variations in the climate at large, like the 'Etesian winds' which blow over the eastern Mediterranean at the same time each year.

Annual events of agricultural interest are also noted, as well as seasonal indicators such as solstices and equinoxes, or the return of the swallows in springtime. Thus 'rain, according to Democritus,' 'the equinox, according to Eudoxus,' or 'Aries begins to rise, according to Callippus. Occasionally, predictions offer specific locations or perhaps applications to which they are supposed to apply, like 'a storm at sea.

It is interesting to note that the astrological parapegmata do not seem to overlap with the astrometeorological ones: there are no parapegmata which clearly contain both weather predictions and either lunar days or hebdomadal deities,23 although the sun's position in the zodiac does feature in both types.

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In contrast to the astrometeorological parapegmata, the astrological ones offer no predictions. They are instead tools for keeping track of one or more astrological cycles such as the sun's position in the zodiac, the day of the moon easily converted to its phase , the planet presiding over the day the 'hebdomadal deity' , and occasionally also calendrical cycles such as 23 With the possible exception of the Puteoli parapegma, A. This combination of calendrical and astrological information is not unique to the parapegmata.

We see here a combination of consular and calendrical dating, with exactly the kinds of information which the astrological parapegmata were used to keep track of. IV: Who Wrote the Parapegmata? Some parapegmata are attributive, that is, they attribute either stellar phases, weather, or both, to some prior authority, such as "rain, according to Euctemon. Whether, for example, Democritus had composed a work that looked anything like a parapegma is unanswerable. It is certainly possible that the work from which his predictions were excerpted in the later parapegmata was of an entirely different structure.

For all we know it may have read more like Hesiod than Ptolemy. See Worp, For other examples, see Erikkson, , p. Lehoux, What Is a Pampegma? This fact makes it difficult to know how valuable an exercise it is to excerpt the 'calendrical fragments' of, say, Democritus or Euctemon from the extant parapegmata. Barron: 'the Roman', is mentioned only in Lydus and at the end of Clodius Tuscus.

Pliny seems to associate the calendar reform of Julius Caesar and Sosigenes with the parapegmatic tradition,27 and so I think the Caesar cited in the parapegmata may well be Julius Caesar. Calianeus of the Indians: is mentioned only in Miletus I, and is otherwise unknown, although he may be the same person as the gymnosophist Calanus mentioned in the Alexander - 28 history Pingree argues that Calianeus was using a Greek rather than an Indian method of astrometeorological prediction.

Pliny also mentions them. He is mentioned by both Archimedes and Apollonius as a mathematician, and by Seneca, Callimachus and Catullus as an 25 As Rehm and van der Waerden have done. Lehoux, WhatlsaPampegma? Dositheus: pupil of Conon, late 3rd c. Ptolemy says he observed at Cos. He is also mentioned by Geminus, Pliny and Lydus. Euctemon: is frequently associated with Meton in the ancient sources. Together, they are known for a solstice observation at Athens in , and Euctemon is also associated with the year Metonic cycle.

Eudoxus of Cnidus: the astronomer, geographer, and mathematician. He lived during the first half of the fourth century B. He was the originator of the homocentric spheres model of the Cosmos, and is associated with an eight-year cycle. Hipparchus of Rhodes: fl.


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Many of his observations are cited in Ptolemy's Almagest. Hipparchus discovered the precession of the equinoxes, and was also responsible for incorporating many Babylonian observation reports and numerical parameters into Greek astronomy. Toomer's OCD article on him, and I. Buhner- Thomas's DSB article.

Dicks's DSB article on Dositheus. Toomers"detailed DSB article on Hipparchus. Meton fifth century astronomer, frequently associated with Euctemon see above. He is mentioned in Ge minus, Columella, and Ptolemy. Metrodonis of Chios: pupil of Democritus.